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This page guides you through the process of setting up the Postgres destination connector.



Postgres, while an excellent relational database, is not a data warehouse. Please only consider using postgres as a destination for small data volumes (e.g. less than 10GB) or for testing purposes. For larger data volumes, we recommend using a data warehouse like BigQuery, Snowflake, or Redshift. Learn more here.


To use the Postgres destination, you'll need:

  • A Postgres server version 9.5 or above

Airbyte Cloud only supports connecting to your Postgres instances with SSL or TLS encryption. TLS is used by default. Other than that, you can proceed with the open-source instructions below.

You'll need the following information to configure the Postgres destination:

  • Host - The host name of the server.
  • Port - The port number the server is listening on. Defaults to the PostgreSQL™ standard port number (5432).
  • Username
  • Password
  • Default Schema Name - Specify the schema (or several schemas separated by commas) to be set in the search-path. These schemas will be used to resolve unqualified object names used in statements executed over this connection.
  • Database - The database name. The default is to connect to a database with the same name as the user name.
  • JDBC URL Params (optional)

Refer to this guide for more details

Configure Network Access

Make sure your Postgres database can be accessed by Airbyte. If your database is within a VPC, you may need to allow access from the IP you're using to expose Airbyte.

Step 1: Set up Postgres


You need a Postgres user with the following permissions:

  • can create tables and write rows.
  • can create schemas e.g:

You can create such a user by running:

CREATE USER airbyte_user WITH PASSWORD '<password>';

You can also use a pre-existing user but we highly recommend creating a dedicated user for Airbyte.

Step 2: Set up the Postgres connector in Airbyte

Target Database

You will need to choose an existing database or create a new database that will be used to store synced data from Airbyte.

Naming Conventions

From Postgres SQL Identifiers syntax:

  • SQL identifiers and key words must begin with a letter (a-z, but also letters with diacritical marks and non-Latin letters) or an underscore (_).

  • Subsequent characters in an identifier or key word can be letters, underscores, digits (0-9), or dollar signs ($).

    Note that dollar signs are not allowed in identifiers according to the SQL standard, so their use might render applications less portable. The SQL standard will not define a key word that contains digits or starts or ends with an underscore, so identifiers of this form are safe against possible conflict with future extensions of the standard.

  • The system uses no more than NAMEDATALEN-1 bytes of an identifier; longer names can be written in commands, but they will be truncated. By default, NAMEDATALEN is 64 so the maximum identifier length is 63 bytes

  • Quoted identifiers can contain any character, except the character with code zero. (To include a double quote, write two double quotes.) This allows constructing table or column names that would otherwise not be possible, such as ones containing spaces or ampersands. The length limitation still applies.

  • Quoting an identifier also makes it case-sensitive, whereas unquoted names are always folded to lower case.

  • In order to make your applications portable and less error-prone, use consistent quoting with each name (either always quote it or never quote it).


Airbyte Postgres destination will create raw tables and schemas using the Unquoted identifiers by replacing any special characters with an underscore. All final tables and their corresponding columns are created using Quoted identifiers preserving the case sensitivity. Special characters in final tables are replaced with underscores.

For Airbyte Cloud:

  1. Log into your Airbyte Cloud account.
  2. In the left navigation bar, click Destinations. In the top-right corner, click new destination.
  3. On the Set up the destination page, enter the name for the Postgres connector and select Postgres from the Destination type dropdown.
  4. Enter a name for your source.
  5. For the Host, Port, and DB Name, enter the hostname, port number, and name for your Postgres database.
  6. List the Default Schemas.

The schema names are case sensitive. The 'public' schema is set by default. Multiple schemas may be used at one time. No schemas set explicitly - will sync all of existing.

  1. For User and Password, enter the username and password you created in Step 1.

  2. For Airbyte Open Source, toggle the switch to connect using SSL. For Airbyte Cloud uses SSL by default.

  3. For SSL Modes, select:

    • disable to disable encrypted communication between Airbyte and the source
    • allow to enable encrypted communication only when required by the source
    • prefer to allow unencrypted communication only when the source doesn't support encryption
    • require to always require encryption. Note: The connection will fail if the source doesn't support encryption.
    • verify-ca to always require encryption and verify that the source has a valid SSL certificate
    • verify-full to always require encryption and verify the identity of the source
  4. To customize the JDBC connection beyond common options, specify additional supported JDBC URL parameters as key-value pairs separated by the symbol & in the JDBC URL Parameters (Advanced) field.

    Example: key1=value1&key2=value2&key3=value3

    These parameters will be added at the end of the JDBC URL that the AirByte will use to connect to your Postgres database.

    The connector now supports connectTimeout and defaults to 60 seconds. Setting connectTimeout to 0 seconds will set the timeout to the longest time available.

    Note: Do not use the following keys in JDBC URL Params field as they will be overwritten by Airbyte: currentSchema, user, password, ssl, and sslmode.


This is an advanced configuration option. Users are advised to use it with caution.

  1. For SSH Tunnel Method, select:

    • No Tunnel for a direct connection to the database
    • SSH Key Authentication to use an RSA Private as your secret for establishing the SSH tunnel
    • Password Authentication to use a password as your secret for establishing the SSH tunnel

Since Airbyte Cloud requires encrypted communication, select SSH Key Authentication or Password Authentication if you selected disable, allow, or prefer as the SSL Mode; otherwise, the connection will fail.

  1. Click Set up destination.

Supported sync modes

The Postgres destination connector supports the following sync modes:

Full Refresh SyncYes
Incremental - Append SyncYes
Incremental - Append + DedupedYes

Schema map

Output Schema (Raw Tables)

Each stream will be mapped to a separate raw table in Postgres. The default schema in which the raw tables are created is airbyte_internal. This can be overridden in the configuration. Each table will contain 3 columns:

  • _airbyte_raw_id: a uuid assigned by Airbyte to each event that is processed. The column type in Postgres is VARCHAR.
  • _airbyte_extracted_at: a timestamp representing when the event was pulled from the data source. The column type in Postgres is TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE.
  • _airbyte_loaded_at: a timestamp representing when the row was processed into final table. The column type in Postgres is TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE.
  • _airbyte_data: a json blob representing with the event data. The column type in Postgres is JSONB.

Final Tables Data type mapping

Airbyte TypePostgres Type
timestamp_with_timezoneTIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE
time_with_timezoneTIME WITH TIME ZONE

Naming limitations

Postgres restricts all identifiers to 63 characters or less. If your stream includes column names longer than 63 characters, they will be truncated to this length. If this results in two columns having the same name, Airbyte may modify these column names to avoid the collision.

Creating dependent objects


This section involves running DROP ... CASCADE on the tables that Airbyte produces. Make sure you fully understand the consequences before enabling this option. Permanent data loss is possible with this option!

You may want to create objects that depend on the tables generated by Airbyte, such as views. If you do so, we strongly recommend:

  • Using a tool like dbt to automate the creation
  • And using an orchestrator to trigger dbt.

This is because you will need to enable the "Drop tables with CASCADE" option. The connector sometimes needs to recreate the tables; if you have created dependent objects, Postgres will require the connector to run drop statements with CASCADE enabled. However, this will cause the connector to also drop the dependent objects. Therefore, you MUST have a way to recreate those dependent objects from scratch.


Now that you have set up the Postgres destination connector, check out the following tutorials:

Vendor-Specific Connector Limitations


Not all implementations or deployments of a database will be the same. This section lists specific limitations and known issues with the connector based on how or where it is deployed.


Expand to review
VersionDatePull RequestSubject
2.0.132024-06-13#40159Config error on drop failure when cascade is disabled
2.0.122024-06-12#39388Sources auto-conversion to Kotlin
2.0.112024-06-10#39372Fixed function already exists error
2.0.102024-05-07#37660Adopt CDK 0.33.2
2.0.92024-04-11#36974Add option to drop with CASCADE
2.0.82024-04-10#36805Adopt CDK 0.29.10 to improve long column name handling
2.0.72024-04-08#36768Adopt CDK 0.29.7 to improve destination state handling
2.0.62024-04-05#36620Adopt CDK 0.29.3 to use Kotlin CDK
2.0.52024-03-07#35899Adopt CDK 0.27.3; Bugfix for case-senstive table names in v1-v2 migration, _airbyte_meta in raw tables
2.0.42024-03-07#35899Adopt CDK 0.23.18; Null safety check in state parsing
2.0.32024-03-01#35528Adopt CDK 0.23.11; Use Migration framework
2.0.22024-03-01#35760Mark as certified, add PSQL exception to deinterpolator
2.0.12024-02-22#35385Upgrade CDK to 0.23.0; Gathering required initial state upfront
2.0.02024-02-09#35042GA release V2 destinations format.
0.6.32024-02-06#34891Remove varchar limit, use system defaults
0.6.22024-01-30#34683CDK Upgrade 0.16.3; Fix dependency mismatches in slf4j lib
0.6.12024-01-29#34630CDK Upgrade; Use lowercase raw table in T+D queries.
0.6.02024-01-19#34372Add dv2 flag in spec
0.5.52024-01-18#34236Upgrade CDK to 0.13.1; Add indexes in raw table for query optimization
0.5.42024-01-11#34177Add code for DV2 beta (no user-visible changes)
0.5.32024-01-10#34135Use published CDK missed in previous release
0.5.22024-01-08#33875Update CDK to get Tunnel heartbeats feature
0.5.12024-01-04#33873Install normalization to enable DV2 beta
0.5.02023-12-18#33507Upgrade to latest CDK; Fix DATs and tests
0.4.02023-06-27#27781License Update: Elv2
0.3.272023-04-04#24604Support for destination checkpointing
0.3.262022-09-27#17299Improve error handling for strict-encrypt postgres destination
0.3.242022-09-08#16046Fix missing database name URL Encoding
0.3.232022-07-18#16260Prevent traffic going on an unsecured channel in strict-encryption version of destination postgres
0.3.222022-07-18#13840Added the ability to connect using different SSL modes and SSL certificates
0.3.212022-07-06#14479Publish amd64 and arm64 versions of the connector
0.3.202022-05-17#12820Improved 'check' operation performance
0.3.192022-04-25#12195Add support for additional JDBC URL Params input
0.3.182022-04-12#11729Bump mina-sshd from 2.7.0 to 2.8.0
0.3.172022-04-05#11729Fixed bug with dashes in schema name
0.3.152022-02-25#10421Refactor JDBC parameters handling
0.3.142022-02-14#10256(unpublished) Add -XX:+ExitOnOutOfMemoryError JVM option
0.3.132021-12-01#8371Fixed incorrect handling "\n" in ssh key
0.3.122021-11-08#7719Improve handling of wide rows by buffering records based on their byte size rather than their count
0.3.112021-09-07#5743Add SSH Tunnel support
0.3.102021-08-11#5336Destination Postgres: fix \u0000(NULL) value processing